Originally established as a faculty of medicine under Cairo University in 1962, it evolved to become a separate institution in 1972. Mansoura University now includes the Faculties of Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, Engineering, Agriculture, Commerce, Law, Science, Education, Specific Education, Arts, Computers and Information, Nursing, Veterinary Medicine, Physical Education, Early Childhood Education, Tourism and Hotels, and Fine Arts. The university is one of the largest in Egypt, and it hosts over 165,000 undergraduate students, 18,000 postgraduate students, and 7,000 faculty. Notable alumni of Mansoura University include politician Ayman Nour and novelist Mohamed Mansi Qandil.
According to Webometrics and Times Higher Education in 2022, Mansoura University is ranked in the top two universities in Egypt, the top thirteen among Arab universities, and the top 1000 in the world.